Surveying & measurments
Construction projects must be measured in a way others can interpret. Most of the time, a concrete form is poured in anticipation of the stone veneer or steps that will come after. If you are replacing an existing structure, you measure the existing material that will be replaced.
3D scanning & photogrammetry supplements traditional measurements, helping to verify written values or to estimate a forgotten measurement. It is also useful to visualize the object or site from top, side, and front views that you will reproduce in a CAD drawing.
Drafting or technical drawing allows a builder to understand the project from different points of view. 3D models help visualize the project but dimensions are almost always shown on three flat views: top, front and side.
Before standard measurements, cathedral builders used a rope to determine all the distances by folding it into different fractions and drawing a radius. The converging lines caused geometric shapes to emerge that were considered sacred. Ancient civilizations built temples and entire cities around sacred geometry, using the path of the sun as a vector.
A movement started in the Nordic countries that aims to return urban environments to pre-modernist architecture. Since the end of World War II, architects have been trained to avoid anything classical, favoring modernism concerned with industry and automobiles. The result is big, ugly boxes and concrete slabs instead of walkable spaces with a balance of ornament and livability that was the norm for thousands of years.